Monday, September 30, 2019

Benjamin Franklin and Frederick Douglass as self-made men Essay

‘Autobiography’ of Benjamin Franklin states that apart from being one of the founding fathers of United States, he was a philosopher, scientist, inventor, a leading writer, publisher and a diplomat too. A person with so many specialties in his personality is rarely seen and when we read the whole book, which has 14 chapters, we come to know that Benjamin Franklin was completely a self-made man. He gained expertise in each field he worked because he did everything in his life with all his interest. Benjamin gives a good description of his life in Philadelphia and his keen interest in literature and hilosophy in this book. He also had interest in religion prevailing in America during colonial and revolutionary period. He wrote the first five chapters of the book in England in 1771 and after 13 years i. e. , probably in 1884-85 he continued it when he was in Paris. Later when he returned to US in 1788, he completed the book giving the account of his life till he is 57 years old i. e. , till 1757. One year after Benjamin Franklin’s death, in March 1791, his autobiography was published in Paris. Benjamin was born in Boston in 1706 as his father’s 15th child out of 17. When he was a chool going child he wanted to become a minister but later he dropped this idea as he had great interest in reading and writing. For the first few years, Benjamin apprenticed his brother but soon moved to Philadelphia and worked there for some time. While staying in Philadelphia, Franklin made friends with well-known political figures and then moved to England. Here he stayed for 18 months with James Ralph who was a good friend of his but later he estranged with him. Then in 1726 he returned to America where he started a debating club in a very short time and called it the Junto. After two years, with the help of tools and knowledge gained in England, he turned ‘The Pennsylvania Gazette’ into a flourishing publication after taking it over from Keimer. In 1730 Benjamin married his beloved, Deborah Read and had two children. Franklin did printing work for the government holding small positions during 1730s. Later he became postmaster of Philadelphia and also started Poor Richard’s Almanac. He invented Franklin stove by the end of 1730s. 1740s saw him working on various projects like fire brigade, police force, university of Philadelphia and even public works like street weeping service too. After retiring from printing business in 1748 he conducted various scientific researches on lightning. He was honored with degrees from Harvard and Yale in 1753 and he turned out to be the Postmaster General of America. Next year saw war breaking out between England and France and he participated in the war by drafting proposals that helped bring funds for the war. However the ‘Autobiography’ is left unfinished and is written only up to 1757. The first chapter of his ‘Autobiography’ is addressed to his first son, William Franklin who was born nearly one year after his marriage. He writes, Dear son: I have ever had pleasure in obtaining any little anecdotes of my ancestors. You may remember the enquiries I made among the remains of my relations when you were with me in England, and the journey I undertook for that purpose. (The Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin, Chapter one, Lines 1-3) First chapter includes his present work and the reasons behind choosing it, some description of his ancestors’, about his early life and his attachment towards reading books. In chapter six, Benjamin mentions a lot of such incidents that made him decide to be simply honest in his dealings in life. The philosophical lines in chapter six are, I grew convinc’d that truth, sincerity and integrity in dealings between man and man were of the utmost importance to the felicity of life; and I form’d written resolutions. Which still remain in my journal book, to practice them ever while I lived. (The Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin, Chapter six, Paragraph 21, Lines 1-2) Thus we find that Benjamin Franklin worked on lot of projects and expertised his knowledge in various field with the help of his own experiences of life. He met various people and read variety of books too, which further helped him develop a sense of esponsibility and duty as well also morality and self-improvement. â€Å"Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, An American Slave† is a book with eleven chapters that gives us the picture of Douglass’s life as a slave and how keen he was to become a free man. His book has played quite an influential role during the ‘abolition movement’ of early nineteenth century in United States. The first chapter starts with the information that Douglass is unaware of his date of birth and seems sad about this fact. Then he explains that he lost his mother when he was only seven-year-old but he was taken far away from his mother even before that. He had no idea about who was his father but according to most people he must have been the son of his owner who was a white man. The first time when Douglass could see the brutal side of slavery was when he saw his Aunt Hester being whipped. The following two three chapters describe the life of slaves of that time and how they were treated along with farms’ structure also. A very important and mentionable point here is the description of the singing of the slaves and this makes the reader have a good deal of admiration for Douglass as he knows far better that slaves are forced to do everything. Douglass mentions incidents of extreme brutality with slaves even if they spoke truth. He also makes the reader aware of how slaves were taught to behave in front of their owners. In chapter five he starts with life in Baltimore as he was taken there and also mentions that had he not been taken to Baltimore, he would have been slave for the rest of his life without having the feeling of making himself free. Here he started to feel that he could also have better hopes for future and mentions his new mistress, Mrs. Auld as a very kind woman initially but in due course of time turned malicious. Douglass learned to spell small words and read a little bit from Mrs. Auld and he tried to develop his new skill whenever he found time and opportunity. The following two chapters describe his life in Baltimore and how he learns to read and write for himself and the sufferings due to this skill for him. In chapter six he mentions the difference in the treatments of a city slave and rural slave. He writes, I had resided but a short time in Baltimore before I observed a marked difference, in the treatment of slaves, from that which I had witnessed in the country. A city slave is almost free man compared with a slave on the plantation. He is much better fed and clothed, and enjoys privileges altogether unknown to the slave on the plantation. Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, An American Slave, Chapter six, Paragraph 4, Lines 1-2) When Douglass was probably ten or eleven years his master died and with the division of property he was sent to the family of Master Hugh. For some time he was moved from one master to another which he extremely hated but had no option other than to follow the instructions of his present master. During these different voyages, Douglass made up is mind to flee from this kind of life and tried to take an account of the direction he was traveling so that it would help him run away from there. He had very hard time with the kind of work he was allotted and he was even whipped almost weekly just because he was awkward with the work. All this crossed the limit of patience for Douglass and one day when his master Covey tried to tie him he fought and won. After this incident he was never beaten. Douglass was then sent to another farm where he made friends with other slaves and also taught them to read and write. Here he planed to escape with some of the slaves but was caught and sent to jail. After being released from jail he was sent to learn some trade in Baltimore and he worked as a trainee in a shipyard. Here also white men abused him and his master was kind enough to make him work as a caulker and not go back to the shipyard again. He was even given wages for his work but he had to give them to Master Auld. He writes, In the early part of the year 1838, I became quite restless. I could see no reasons why I should, at the end of each week, pour the reward of my toil into the purse of my master. When I carried to him my weekly wages, he would, after counting the money, look at me in the face with a robber-like fierceness, and ask, â€Å"Is this all? he was satisfied with nothing less than the last cent. He would, however, when I made him six dollars, sometimes give me six cents, to encourage me. It had the opposite effect. (Narrative of the Life of Fredrick Douglass, An American Slave, Chapter eleven, Paragraph 3, Lines 1-3) Somehow Douglass manages and finds his own job and escapes from there and moves to Massachusetts. He mentioned very little about this escape in order to protect the names of persons who helped him in this work. After this he met his fiance and started working on his own. He then joined an antislavery get-together and fought for the issue from that time onwards. Within four months of the publication of the book, â€Å"Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, An American Slave† in 1845, it made a sale of five thousand copies. Douglass sailed to England after the publication of his book and remained there for next two years, as he feared to be recaptured by his legal master. This book eventually gave him the liberty to work for himself and people now believed in the story of his past. He then started a black newspaper too.

Sunday, September 29, 2019

Comparison of Two Poems

In two of D. H Lawrence’s works Bat and Man and Bat, both poems portray the author’s encounters with bats and his feeling of disgust towards them. In this essay I will compare the two poems in terms of tone, rhythm, diction and style. Both Bat and Man and bat started with a peaceful tone; the author describes the setting in Florence, Italy and gives a calming tone to the readers. However, as the author proceeds with the poem, and starts to introduce a bat, the tone starts to change. In bat, the tone changes gradually, the author wonders why a swallow would fly so late- at this point he describes the swallow’s movement and the tone changes; the readers sense a mysterious feel. When the author does confirm that the bird is in fact a bat, the tone of the poem changes, we sense the disgust the author feels towards the bats, using words such as â€Å"old rag†, giving â€Å"uneasy creeping in one’s scalp† (341-342). This particular tone set by the author greatly defines the hate he has for bats and also due to change in rhythm and diction, helps the readers experience the events within the poem. However, the tone in Man and Bat did not change as gradually, in fact it changes drastically. Soon after the start of the poem, the author introduces the bat and almost immediately words such as â€Å"disgusting† and â€Å"Out! Go Out! † (342) sets the tone of disgust. Throughout the ‘rant’ the tone remains the same, but the author did change the tone twice; when the main character in the poem (supposedly the author) realizes that the bat cannot leave his room because he cannot face the light, a sense of pity clouds the readers, the author feels pit for the bat and changes the mood slightly for a while. The tone of disgust returns though soon after yet it changes again; whilst the author wants to kill the bat and throw it away, he said that he didn’t create the bat therefore he cannot kill it, the tone shifts back to pity for the second time, giving the readers more hints that the author does pity the bat and does not wish to kill it. Man and Bat ends quite gracefully, the last few sentences had a peaceful tone, the author was quite happy that the bat had left and now enjoys the evening leaving the readers at ease. However, in Bat the ending still had the tone of disgust, ending the poem with an exclamation mark really emphasizes on the disgust. Both Bat and Man and Bat also start with similar rhythm; the pace was quite slow with the help of ellipses which helped prolonged the sentences. These prolonged sentences tend to calm the readers, so they could feel how ‘lazy’ the author feels through the poem. In Bat, the author changes the rhythm gradually too; after noticing the birds, the author still narrates with a lazy rhythm but also attentive, and that is how the readers start to feel suspicious of these swallows. As soon as the bats are introduced, exclamation marks are also introduced to readers; these exclamation marks give a heightened sensation to the readers and make them feel rushed (finding themselves reading through the poem with greater speed). This fast rhythm also gives more tension to the readers, giving a ‘thriller’ feel and gives more entertainment value to the poem, as the author describes in great detail the bat’s flights. However, the author still uses ellipses as he describes the bats, but these ellipses have a different effect; instead of prolonging the sentence it adds more mystery and a hint of uncertainty. In Man and Bat, the rhythm doesn’t change as gradually and the rhythm is even faster than that of Bat; as soon as the bat is introduced, the author changes the rhythm immediately, using repetition of the words ‘round and round and round’ (342) to rush and tense the readers more into reading the poem faster. The scene where the author tries to escape the bat is a typical action scene, happening very quickly. The author uses more exclamation marks to tense and fasten the rhythm more and this fast rhythm really helps the readers to understand the situation of the poem and also enhances the tone of disgust the author uses in the poem. Nevertheless, Man and Bat ended in a calming pace, the author reflects on the bat and threw away his grudges towards it- it leaves the readers content with the happy ending. However, Bat did not end as peaceful; the ending came abruptly, the author still hints a disgusted tone and the rhythm did not slow down- it even ended with an exclamation mark. This kind of ending leaves the readers hanging unlike Man and Bat. There were two main dictions in Bat and Man and Bat; diction for movement and diction for disgust. Both poems describe the bat’s movements in the air, going ‘round and round and round’ and in both works the author emphasizes on his revolt towards the ‘disgusting old rags’. In Bat, the author chose words such as ‘swallows with spools of dark thread sewing the shadows together’ when describing the birds movement; the readers feel the mystery of these swallows- yet not disgusted- and somehow the swallow’s flight seemed elegant. However, when realizing that these swallows were in fact bats, the author uses words such as ‘wildly vindictive’ and ‘hanging disgustingly upside down’ (341) even though these are the same birds he saw. The author’s change of words help adding depth towards the tone of disgust he hints, and his choice of words impact how the readers feel towards the bat, mainly revolt. The author’s choice of words also affects the rhythm; the readers think that the bat’s movements are wild, uneasy and frightening instead of the elegance of the swallows. Nevertheless, the author’s choice of words in Man and Bat even emphasizes more on the bat’s crazy movements and his dislike towards them. Within the first page the author already plunges into words such as ‘a twitchy, nervous, intolerable flight’, ‘a neurasthenic lunge’ and ‘impure frenzy’ (342). These words really affect the poem’s pace and adding more depth towards the already obvious hatred; readers feel overwhelmed whilst reading Man and Bat because it contains carefully chosen words which gives great impact. Another obvious technique the author uses is repetition of the word ‘round’ which is used to describe the movement of the bat within the character’s room. In fact, the author uses that word 22 times in Man and Bat. In conclusion, D. H Lawrence used tone, rhythm and diction to his full advantage when writing Bat and Man and Bat to portray his repulse towards bat and its wild and frightening movements.

Friday, September 27, 2019

Tom Izzo Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Tom Izzo - Research Paper Example Izzo played as guard for the men’s basketball team from where he achieved a school record for minutes played; and so he acquired the name a Division II All- American (Michigan State Men’s Basketball). In 1991 he was inducted to Northern Michigan University as well as to Upper Penisula Hall in 1997. After completing the graduation from Northern Michigan, he undertook the responsibility of the head coach at Ishpeming High School for one year. Subsequently he worked as assistant coach and part-time assistant coach at Northern Michigan University (1979-1983) and in Michigan State in 1983 respectively. After resigning the post of assistant coach at University of Tulsa, he returned to Michigan State. While the assistant Mike Deane got promoted to the head coach at another college he took the role of the assistant. In 1991, prior to the last seasonal performance, the present head coach Jud Healthcote elevated him to the associated head coach at Michigan State. Based on his per formance and by the recommendation from the Michigan State Athletic director, he was promoted to the men’s basketball head coach for MSU (Michigan State Men’s Basketball). As the head coach, Izzo molded his team members to tough players. His coaching strategy is entirely different from that of other coaches. He made his trainees fit both physically and mentally to perform in accordance with the changing situations. Izzo’s motto is that â€Å"It doesn’t matter, morning, noon or night, and it doesn’t matter who it is† (Tom Izzo. Cited in Amadeo) . He teaches his trainees to motivate each other by undertaking various responsibilities with intent to inculcate ownership feeling between them. In his view, great players and good players are different; great players help their co-players to be more active in the field. His training strategy includes strength training, toughness training and conditioning. Izzo gives equal preferences to both physical and mental health of team members. By winning his 341st game on November 2009 he became the most winning coach in the school history. As a result, he could beat the previous head coach Heathcote. Even though he couldn’t make the tournament in his first two seasons, he could bridge the previous limitations by MSU’s record in conference and by winning the first of his six regular- season Big Ten championship in addition to the two Big Ten tournament titles( Michigan state: Mens Basketball). In 2000 his team MSU won the NCCA national championship against Florida Gators. As a head coach, the whole players recruited and trained by him were allowed to participate in the final four, and among them eighty two percent completed their qualification from MSU with a degree. It indicates his outstanding potential in coaching field. This extraordinary achievement lifted his demand as a coach. To illustrate, by considering his great coaching experience, some other professional baske tball teams and NBA pursued him. However he decided to continue at his present position and informed his decision to the Michigan State University’s Board. This decision which would be good news to his Spartans indicates his real dedication to his career. During his outstanding coaching career, he was several times awarded for his great contributions to the game. His achievements include ‘Associated Press National Coach of the Year Award’ in 1998 and ‘Henry Iba Award’ in 1998, Big Ten Coach of the Year

Free Speech or Blatant Cuber-terrorism Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Free Speech or Blatant Cuber-terrorism - Essay Example An organization like the New York Daily News praised this effort by Wiki Leaks, denoting it had changed the manner in which news was gathered, and disseminated. Freedom of speech is an important pillar that guides the political, social, and economic environments of United States (Beckett and Ball, 2012). All democracies promote freedom of speech, irrespective of whether the information provided is good to the government or not. It is important to explain that democratic governments normally encourage criticisms. By releasing this information, the founder of Wiki Leaks was criticizing the diplomatic and military strategies of United States (Beckett and Ball, 2012). This is because some of the information released talked about the negative perceptions that the American government had towards some world leaders, and their governments. Wiki Leaks is not cyber terrorism, and its founder is not responsible for abetting or aiding terrorism. Instead, Wiki Leaks is a media organization that aims at promoting freedom of speech, and that of the

Thursday, September 26, 2019

Some Abortions are Immoral and Some are Moral Essay

Some Abortions are Immoral and Some are Moral - Essay Example The debate on 'Why would a mother choose to end her own child's life' is never ending. There are various moral, ethical, health and legal issues involved. Abortion not only effects mother and her baby but also the rest of the family members: father, siblings of baby, grandparents, friends and everyone else involved in the process. 1. Measure of birth control: 98% of abortions result as a measure of birth control. It is the leading cause of death in America. Since no birth control method is 100% effective, women opt for a termination in case of an unplanned pregnancy ("Abortion 101,"n.d.). 2. Teenage Pregnancy: One of the major reasons of teenage pregnancy is unawareness. Most of these pregnancies are unintended resulting from unsafe sex. Teens choose abortion as they are not prepared to become parents at such an early age of life. In 1999, over 148,000 teenage pregnancies ended in abortion. Most of the abortions are performed without the consent and knowledge of parents. The best measure to prevent the teenage pregnancy is the education about safe sex and support of parents (Alford, 2003). 3. Rape and incest: Rape and incest victims account for 1% of the abortion cases ("Abortion 101,"n.d.).Abortion is often seen as a solution to the problem. But it can have serious long lasting effects on the mother such as depression, guilt, anger, loneliness. (Reardon, 1994). 4. Single parenting: In many cases, woman's partner may not support her in pregnancy and wants to go ahead with the abortion. This leaves mother in dilemma to choose birth or abortion. Understanding the problems faced by single mothers in the society, mother may opt for an abortion ("Why Do Women Have Abortions," 2006). 5. Financial issues: Some mothers consider that they are not financially sound to support their child after birth. This situation may lead to inadequacy of indispensable resources in upbringing of the child. The future and security of both the mother and the child are at risk. Most of the times this situation is due to single parenting ("Why Do Women Have Abortions," 2006). 6. Pregnancy due to a dishonest premarital or extramarital relationship: Pregnancy resulting from an illicit relation may ruin a women's family and social life. It may have serious impact on other family members such as her husband, other children, in laws and friends. 7. Pregnancy as a hurdle in education and career: College age women form the major abortion carrying group. Pregnancy is seen as hurdle in realizing their dreams. 8. Gender selection: It is also a major cause of abortions, especially in Asian countries like India and China. Families who do not have enough funds to raise and educate many children, opt for sons who will eventually earn for the family in future and abort girl child with the fear of raising her to be married into someone's else's home. 9. Domestic violence issues: Women subjected to domestic violence in their families do not want to give birth and raise their babies in such an environment and choose an abortion over birth. 10. Birth defects detected in the babies: If the medical tests detect birth defects in the babies, mothers can opt

Wednesday, September 25, 2019

Communications Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Communications - Essay Example However, from a communication perspective managing a virtual team can pose problems in maintaining rapport among members, bridging cultural gaps, and orchestrating for them to do their designated tasks at specified dates. As opposed to members who meet face to face, virtual teams have yet to build a strong relationship through virtual interactions in order to maintain the efficiency and accuracy of the work which the company wants each member to undertake. The initial meeting of the virtual team should be designed in order to overcome the distrust and anxiety that the members feel toward each other. Thus, in order to facilitate this meeting, it is recommended that teleconferencing be used in order to develop a warm and more social atmosphere. This get-to-know-each-other stage should not be a venue to tackle serious and formal matters but should be designed in order for team members to feel at ease with the prospect of working together in the future. Thus, teleconferencing will allow each other to talk and view each other while the first meeting is conducted. The first meeting should be facilitated by someone from the headquarters of SWC. At first, there should be an ice breaker by allowing members to introduce themselves and communicate casually with each others. The latter portion will be more serious by as it will be on the establishment of the team's goal and clarification of the roles and responsibilities of each team member. Before this discussion, an overview of how things work in the company should be presented in order for members to know how their different tasks can contribute to the overall process taken to attain corporate goals. Special discussions should also be conducted to tackle the following questions within the group: agreement on team ground rules, turnaround time of emails, calls, etc; information sharing; giving and receiving feedback; using media effectively; conflict management; and stakeholder satisfaction (Jude et al 2000). The facilitator should give each member pitch in his or her ideas in these situations in order to avoid further conflict in the future. Key Interactions Key interactions in the company will be facilitated through different communication channels. Conference calls should be used in order to conduct the needed trainings. As each member will be closely working hand in hand, training them together through conference calls will be beneficial in further defining their tasks and specific responsibilities. The use of email will be to facilitate sending large files and documents to the members as well as different questions and clarification on everyday communication. Emails will therefore be the primary means of communication. NetMeeting will also be used in order to facilitate the periodic meeting of each team member. Aside from these work related communications, SWC should also look into conducting team building strategies in order to solidify team relationship. If possible, it can set up a face-to-face meeting with its team members in an annual basis in order for them to further get acquainted with each other as well as instill

Tuesday, September 24, 2019

REFLECTION ON COURSE PAPER Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

REFLECTION ON COURSE PAPER - Assignment Example However, once the course started, the various readings that were considered, writings that were undertake, and discussions that were had proved that I was going to get more than I expected. Even though my academic ambitions for the course were satisfied, much more were going to be gained for my professional involvement and this is what this reflection paper seeks to bring to bear. As part of the reflection paper therefore, I am going to discuss and scrutinize some new ideas and perspectives that were learned as part of the readings, writings and discussions on the course that was undertaken. Generally, the ideas and perspectives are rooted in the principles of resonance and leadership that was learned. Later, way in which the ideas gained have helped in bringing about a professional transformation to me shall also be treated. The very first new idea that I have learned from the course is rooted in the principle that world-class performers work hard to create their dreams (Tabachnick and Fidell, 2001). Commonly, people tend to have a notion that success comes to people by accident or through luck. They hardly realize that success is a well calculated plan that is executed when key strategies and structures are put in place (Byrne, 2011).

Monday, September 23, 2019

Motifs in The Great Gatsby Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Motifs in The Great Gatsby - Essay Example This actress had none of Daisy’s sophistication, her voice when she spoke echoed off the walls behind her in a brazen, brassy tone that spoke of street markets and low change as compared to the melodious, soft, money-filled voice of Daisy’s. The buzz of conversation that flitted around us as we circulated spoke of such low topics as business and finances, things that belonged in the workplace, not in decent society. Daisy fell into a pattern of simply nodding to these individuals and moving on, in much the same way a queen might pass among her subjects on her way to a finer, more noble company. That Daisy was bored was immediately apparent to any who laid eyes on her, though she tried to remain gay.2 â€Å"I don’t believe I know any of these dances,† Daisy responded, looking coolly about the crowded floor on which several people could be seen performing the new street dances that were just becoming recognized by the theater set. â€Å"Perhaps it is just a little too hot to dance anyway. Shouldn’t we instead go somewhere cool?† Pulled along in their wake like a small tugboat trying to get away, I accompanied Daisy and Gatsby on their stroll about the grounds. Our feet inevitably led us to Gatsby’s garage, where the great yellow car rested in opulent stasis. â€Å"Oh, anything to get some wind. It’s so hot and still these days,† Daisy said in response, not at all concerned that she was taking the host away from his party or leaving her husband in the comforting arms of another Broadway hopeful who was ‘too common’ for her to concern herself about. We went for a ride toward the city, speeding along at breakneck speeds on the empty roads of the New York nighttime, only stopping long enough to allow Daisy to get behind the driver’s wheel because she was bored with just riding on the passenger side and felt perhaps driving would help to

Sunday, September 22, 2019

The Birth of Swatch Essay Example for Free

The Birth of Swatch Essay The Swatch was well-known watch in the history of the watch industry. When it came out at first, it was quite sensational, resulting in more sales than it expected. Since the Swatch had grown strong in the watch industry, it could maintain its reputation and there were more opportunities to success in this industry. In order to find out its success strategies or factors, the following shows its Strengths and opportunities. In addition, its weaknesses and threats could reflect considerations on this future forward. SWOT analysis Strengths| Weaknesses| * High Consumer loyalty * A clean price * Unique designs * Innovations in automation and assembly * Promising designers were adopted * Good reputation * High quality | * Late entry in a quartz watch market * * More rooms for growth in markets * Still has a name value * Has unique messages and ads| * Numerous numbers of competitors in low-price sector in the watch industry * In the mid-price sector, consumer price sensitive is higher and compete against a number of Hong Kong companies For several reasons, the Swatch was successfully entered the new watch industry with its effective strategies and unique products. Firstly, it committed to vertical integration, building and assembling the low-priced quartz watch in Switzerland. The designing proprietary production techniques helped to reduce the production cost. On top of that, the Swatch tried to deliver the unique message to the consumers, making Swatch more than a commodity and adding genuine emotion to the products. One of the main strengths of the Swatch is its unique design. The various designs of watches were created by the artists, architects, and industrial designers. It introduced new products or lines every time with no repetitions. It led loyal consumers to purchase several Swatch products in different lines. Moreover, the Swatch had a reputation for special innovation. For instance, it introduced the scented, youthful, and unpredictable watches at the reasonable prices so that it could keep high customer loyalty. Swatch spent approximately 30% of the retail price of its watches on advertising as its marketing plan. This was about two times high compared with the industry average. They also were able to use unique marketing events and advertising schemes to promote Swatch, emphasizing on below-the line activities. It also had decentralized marketing and centralized manufacturing systems. Additionally, the company created the Swatch collectors Club for its loyal consumers. The Swatch street journal, a magazine that included all information about Swatch in trends, was produced. It also chose a nontraditional retail approach, creating unexpected points of purchase. For example, it launched the Veggie Swatch line in fruit and vegetable market. SMH pursued shop-in-shop systems or miniboutiques so that consumers could only focus on the Swatch products, not displaying its products with other watches. Those strategies helped Swatch lead this market in the watch industry, selling 26 million swatches in 1992 and reversing SMH’s fortunes. Despite its success, there are some concerns whether the success of the Swatch would continue. Still, the world watch market was highly fragmented except Citizen, Seiko, and SMH. There were numerous watch competitors in Switzerland, Asia, and Unite states. The market share of Swatch was still relatively low in the single digits due to highly-fragmented low price sector. It competed with a growing number of watches manufactured in Asia. Besides, the weakest segment of SMH was the mid-price sector. The consumers in this price range were so sensitive at the prices of watches that it was pretty difficult to compete with the Hong Kong manufacturers. Although there were several limits of SMH, there were so many strengths of its strategy that could lead this market. The Swatch had grown continuously by offering radical innovations in design, durability of the products, and unique marketing plans. SMH had its own technology to manufacture the best quality of watches. In addition, its unique designs created by various designers in different areas were quite competitive and appealing to consumers. If it tried to keep tracking the trends in the watch industry, and reflect what consumers want and changes, there would be more opportunities to continue its success.

Saturday, September 21, 2019

The Beat Generation and on the Road Essay Example for Free

The Beat Generation and on the Road Essay Violence and Crime is rising at a steady rate, but when did America inherit its lack of safety for the average person? The answer is from the â€Å"beat† generation. Depressed and hurt from World War Two and The Great Depression the â€Å"beat† generation sparked a downfall into theft, drug and alcohol abuse, and irresponsible sex. During the late nineteen forties and early nineteen fifties it was not uncommon to see people hitchhiking on the side of the road and getting picked up. This was a time when people considered the United States of America to be safe and the average person could walk the streets without worrying about being robbed, raped or murdered. Today it is uncommon to find someone who knowingly allows their adolescent children to hitchhike across the country or sometime even walk to school on their own. The modern-day citizens of the United States of America lock their cars, their homes and even put their children on leashes. These safety precautions would seem ridiculous and silly to those born before the nineteen sixties. This over-zealous amount of safety and security can all be blamed on those who have abused the good and innocent nature that Americans have previously displayed. The beat generation stole and lied at such an increasing rate that present-day Americans must be cautious of each other and live in fear of the most despicable crimes. In the novel, On the Road by Jack Kerouac, the protagonists steal, lie and get high to fill the empty spaces in their schedule and to sooth the pains in their souls. It is through these actions that security develops and these malevolent ideas are exchanged to the youth that is living under this broke and battered generation. The beat generation, hurt by world war two, lost the trust for the average American citizen by stealing, abusing drugs and alcohol and creating broken families. The greed for others belonging and the lack of availability of wealth in the world has tempted all to steal and lie to gain for themselves. In the novel, On the Road, the protagonists are seen stealing gas, cigarettes and even cars. Dean, the narrator’s long-time friend has literally grown up on the wrong side of the tracks. His father being a bum and a drunk helped him learn how to steal and survive the cruel world that the homeless live in. â€Å"We stopped at a gas station, and there Dean and Marylou played piggyback around the tanks and Dunkel went inside and stole three packs of cigarettes without trying. We were fresh out† (Kerouac 139). Dunkel, another homeless hitchhiker is picked up by Dean, Sal and Marylou. He effortlessly steals cigarettes for them, displaying another act of theft by a homeless person. This act of theft shows the reader the lack of morality of the vagabonds in America. When any of the protagonists are confronted by the police it is at a moment in the novel when they are not breaking the law. â€Å"We had to follow the patrolman back to the station and there spent an hour waiting in the grass while they telephoned Chicago to get the owner of the Cadillac to verify our position as hired drivers. Mr. Baron said, according to the cop, ‘Yes, that is my car, but I can’t vouch for anything else those boys might have done. ’†¦Everything was straightened out and we roared on† (Kerouac 236) It is very lucky for Dean and Sal to never get into actual trouble with the cops when they are stopped by them, because they steal so much that with the modern day security system and police they would be instantly caught and hauled off to prison. It is with this lack of morality and their never-ending desires and addictions that the protagonists continue their travels, stealing and doping back and forth across America. Along with the sins of theft comes the crime of drug and alcohol abuse. Throughout the novel the protagonists drink heavily and experiment with marijuana, and Benzedrine. When the group of irresponsible citizens travels to Louisiana to visit Bull Lee they slowly damage their livers with Benzedrine. Bull Lee represents the â€Å"teacher† of the group, the one from whom they have learned their ways of life. It is to no surprise of the reader that Bull Lee is constantly strung out on Benzedrine. â€Å"That night Marylou took everything in the books; she took tea, goofballs, benny, and liquor and even asked Old Bull for a shot of M, which of course he didn’t give her; he gave her a martini. She was so saturated with elements of all kinds that she came to a standstill and stood goofy on the porch with me† (Kerouac 147-148). It is apparent that all of the protagonists abuse drugs and alcohol. This shows their need to get away from the world and leave their lives behind. Like the road, and hitchhiking, drugs help them run from their problems so that they can find happiness. This novel present’s drug and alcohol abuse as a very apparent trend in society. Because of World War Two the people of America have seen many gruesome and horrible sights, and therefore they find the need to distance themselves from society as a whole, so that they can numb the pain from their losses. It was believed for a long time that Kerouac wrote the novel On the Road while taking Benzedrine for the euphoric and creative feeling that it gave him. â€Å"For decades, in countless publications, Kerouac’s nineteen fifty-one typing session has been described as ‘Benzedrine-fueled’ and ‘Benzedrine –drenched’ and so on. This is not the likely case. In a private letter, Kerouac corrected Ginsberg when, years later, he wrote an article for Village Voice saying that Benzedrine boosted Kerouac’s typing feat. Kerouac told Ginsberg in definite terms that ‘Road was not written on benny, on coffee’ (Jack Kerouac Letter to Allen Ginsberg 184)† (Theado 15). It is not unreasonable for those to have questioned Kerouac’s sobriety during the times that he wrote On the Road. It is from this generation that we have learned that one can get high on simple prescription medicine. Along with the drugs the acts of theft can even be considered one of the ways that the protagonists create artificial euphoria for themselves. â€Å"†¦while they might steal to support their drug habits, for example, Dean ‘Stole cars for joyrides’ (Kerouac 10). The phrase â€Å"joy ride† must be understood quite literally as an experience of joy, and joy-spontaneous and unmanageable- seemed to be in scarce supply in the sad world Sal describes†(Holton 23). This sadness in the world that Sal describes, can, in their eyes, only be cured through frivolity, and mischief. Causing mayhem seems to be one of the few ways the characters in the novel can create happiness for themselves. Breaking the law makes them happy and due to this life of recklessness and law breaking, promiscuity and broken families are developed. Throughout the novel Dean and Sal sleep with many women, to satisfy their desire for feelings of euphoria. Dean is found at the end of the novel in his third marriage and having four children. Although Dean loves his children it is not enough for him to stay married to the mother of his children. Dean could not find happiness in his past marriage because he constantly feels the need to be free and unattached from the real world. This could easily be because of him being brought up in a broken family. This shows that because of peoples past lack of creating stable, conventional families, has developed an age where it is more uncommon to find a family where the husband and wife have only been married to each other. It is made clear that all of those around Dean find him irresponsible and even idiotic. Galatea brings this up to Dean by saying:†You have absolutely no regard for anybody but yourself and your damned kicks. All you think about is what’s hanging between your legs and how much money you can get out of people and then you just throw them aside†(Kerouac 194). It is most obvious that Dean is careless and reckless. This is represented by his indecency to not stay with his children and not support them until he is required, by law, to do so. His lack of stability in female acquaintances upsets his friends to the point of them not seeing him in any respected way. â€Å"Dean’s liaison with a third wife is in effect a double betrayal, a double failure. It is a betrayal of his comradely marriage to Sal, and a betrayal of the freedom of action and movement that goes with ’IT’† (Hunt 51). Dean’s promiscuity is commonly seen today, and is regarded as dangerous because of the prevalence of sexually transmitted infections. This spread of STI’s could even possibly be from the beat generation’s incredible sexual deviance. As time progresses life can only get harder for everyone because of the previous generation’s irresponsibility and carelessness. One would argue that it is irresponsible to blame anyone for society’s faults and dangers. As the human race progresses, so does its troubles. It is impossible to blame one generation for all of the troubles in America, but it is clear that the crime rate jumped after World War Two with the xplanation that breaking the law was the only way for people to find euphoria. Drug abuse and theft were, for the most part, under-the-rug subjects and not expected of the average person. Society has quickly learned that anyone can be a criminal and that it is better to be precautious of the worst crimes than to be left stunned and helpless from being too naive and trusting all. Today, The United States of America is plagued with criminals and offenders of the law so that the people have covered the country with security cameras, technological safety precautions and locked doors. The people of The United States of America have learned the hard way, to not trust their neighbors from the actions of the beat generation. It also was very unheard of to have a non-conventional family before the nineteen fifties. The divorce rate is at an all-time high, and it is because of the poor actions that people make with those around them. This was all sparked by the beat generation’s lustful relationships and impromptu marriages. The rise in promiscuity and the lack of desire to be responsible with sex post-World War Two gave the idea that it is ok to not be conventional to the future generations of America. Human beings learn from those around them, and it is not uncommon to find trends in vices through different generations in families. One’s poor decision, witnessed by youth, will likely be reflected in the future by the youth. It is with the knowledge that one’s present actions will affect the future of those around him or her that one should gain responsibility for the future. It is without a doubt that society in the United States of America has drastically changed since World War Two and even more so with the creation of the internet in the nineteen eighties. The beat generation has given society the burden of lack of trust. Through the actions of many, American society has gained the knowledge that any one person can be a criminal. Due to the abuse of drugs, and alcohol from the beat generation, it is not uncommon to find addicts and junkies throughout the streets. Society is not naive anymore to the abuse of prescription drugs and inhalers. Medicines that have helped many have been removed from modern medical practice because of those who abused them for euphoric experiences. Families are now commonly seen with variations in relations between siblings and without a traditional set of two parents. The divorce rate in The United States of America has increased to a magnanimous height. Promiscuous images are frequently seen on the television, in magazines, and on the internet. Children have grown to be unaffected by gruesome and sexual images. It is undeniable that stealing is looked down upon by many, but in the present United States of America, the children are no strangers to shoplifting. Society in America is losing its morality as time goes on. It is due to the inappropriate actions of past generations that the citizens of The United States of America have increased their security and distrust in people as a whole. The beat generation, especially, has disturbed the minds of the American people with its anarchist movements. One should ask him or herself why society is being constantly watched through security cameras, and why it is so hard to find a traditionally structured family, and why it is now dangerous to hitchhike.

Friday, September 20, 2019

Methods of measuring stress and their effectiveness

Methods of measuring stress and their effectiveness Firstly introduced by Hans Selye (1950), the term stress is more used to describe an individuals state of tension which is often seen as being related to modern life. However, stress assessment is made using different method which includes: Self report Biomedical Physiological Self report: Life events (Holmes and Rahe 1976) The most common way of assessing stress is by self-report questionnaires, in which individuals answer questions about their mental or physical state. As a result, two medical doctors, Holmes and Rahe (1976) suggested that major life events, whether good or bad, were potentially stressful. Holmes and Rahe were the first to record the effects of life events in a systematic way. By their study, they observed that patients often experienced several life events in the months before the onset of illness, and as a result, these life events seemed to be associated with poor health and stress. They suggested that, stress is caused by change that can lead to greater susceptibility to physical and mental health disorders. They demonstrated the associations between life events, stress and illness by developing some method of measuring life events. Accordingly, they compiled the Social Readjustment Rating Scale (SRRS) by examining 5000 patient records and making a list of 43 life events both posi tive and negative that seemed to precede illness . Approximately 400 participants were involved in the rating of each item in terms of the quantity of stress produced, out of which 500 was assigned to marriage as a reference point. The averaged results were then divided by 10 to get a measure of the individual events in terms of life change units (LCU). An example of Social Readjustment Rating Scale (SRRS) LIFE EVENTS Rank Life Event Stress Value 1 Death of a spouse 100 2 Divorce 73 3 Marital separation 65 4 Jail term 63 5 Death of a close family member 63 6 Personal injury or illness 53 7 Marriage 50 8 Fired at work 47 9 Marital reconciliation 45 10 Retirement 45 13 Sex difficulties 39 23 Son or daughter leaving 29 38 Change in sleeping habits 16 40 Change in eating habits 15 41 Vacation 13 42 Christmas 12 43 Minor violations of the law law 11 Reference Adapted from Holmes, T., Rahe, R. (1967). The social readjustment rating scale. Journal of psychosomatic research, 11, 213-218. Doctors, Holmes and Rahe (1967) findings suggested that the stress of life events is correlated with physical illness; hence experiencing life events increases the chances of stress-related health breakdown. They were however criticised for being bias by investigating only American men and using only correlational methods. à £Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€š ¬ Assessing the effectiveness of the Self report as a method of stress measurement The SRRS provides the basis for perhaps the most active current area of stress research and also retrospective investigation using either the SRRS or SRE (Schedule of Recent Experience) have demonstrated a linear relationship between mounting life change, cardiac death, accidents, diabetes, leukaemia and infectious disease (Holmes Masuda, 1974). Using the research questionnaire, Holmes Rahe (1950) tested various sub-groups to see if the ratings were consistent, e.g. male and female, single and married and so on. As there was strong agreement between different groups, it seemed that the SRRS was a valid measure for all types of people regardless of their backgrounds. This contributes to the effectiveness of the self report method of stress measurement. This SRRS questionnaire (Holmes and Rahe, 1976) has served as a well-known tool for measuring the amount of stress one has experienced within the past year. Taking the test can help one see clearly if theyre at risk of illness due to stress. The method provided some of the first evidence that there is a genuine association between stressful life events and physical illness. Also, the fact that physical health was assessed after life events increases the chances that life events were helping to cause problems with physical health, rather than the other way round The Social Readjustment Rating Scale (SRRS) and the research associated with it represent a major breakthrough, this is because, it is now generally accepted that life events of various kinds can influence our psychological well-being and our physical and mental health. The development of the SRRS has made it easier to carry out research to test these ideas. This in turn has led to a clearer understanding of the ways in which life events affect us. Indirect evidence that stressful life events play a role in life threatening diseases was reported by Selye, Tache and Day (1979).According to these researchers, cancer was more common among adults who divorced, widowed or separated than among those who were married. The most likely explanation is that, those who were not married were stressed because of lack of social support. It is however hard to establish causal relationships from such data (SSRS data). Perhaps those who were divorced or separated were more vulnerable to stress than those who were married; hence, this stress vulnerability played a role in the collapse of their marriages One of the limitations to this method is that, it has often been assumed that almost any serious life can help to produce any type of illness. This has led to a relative ignoring of more specific effects. Supporting evidence to this effect was where, two men, Finlay -Jones and Brown (1981) found that anxious patients were more likely than depressed patients to have experienced danger events(involving future threats), whereas depressed patients were more likely to have experienced loss events (involving past loses). More research into such studies will however be useful. Another negative side of the SRRS is that, a number of studies have shown that peoples illness rates increase following increase rates in stress scores. However, a number of items on the scale are vague e.g. personal injury or illness appears to suggest that someone could have the same stress score for flu and cancer. Second, there is no general failure to consider the impact of an event on an individual. Christmas is considered to be a mildly stressful event, yet to some people, Christmas may seem extremely stressful, as it may emphasize their loneliness. The SRRS has face validity because many of the events listed are easily recognisable as stressful events. The values Allocated to each stress event have been carefully calculated from data provided by the opinions of many people. The survey form can be filled out easily and quickly. With reference to Raphael et al. (1991), Self-report measures of life events are unreliable. A study had subjects fill out a scale regarding life events they experienced during the prior year. The subjects then filled out the same Questionnaire every month for a year. Towards the end of the year the reports were quite different from the ones made at the beginning of the year (Raphael, et al. 1991). The questionnaire or scale also ignores chronic stresses such as money problems, general hassles etc. Taking this into account, the measure could be considered invalid. Biomedical: Stress and ulcers (Brady 1958) One of the biomedical methods of measuring stress is the evidence that stress may be a causal factor in stomach ulcers. This research was first described by Joseph Brady (1958). Brady did classic studies linking high levels of stress to increased hormone production and the development of ulcers. Brady did this by placing monkeys in restraining chairs and conditioned them to press a lever. The monkeys were then given shocks every 20 seconds unless the lever was pressed during the same time. This experiment however came to an abrupt halt when unexpectedly many of the monkeys died because of ulcers caused by raised gastrointestinal hormone levels. The question put forward was whether the ulcers resulted from the electric shock or the stress. To enhance his results, Brady and his mates used yoked controls where one monkey called executive was liable for controlling the lever while a second monkey received the shocks but had no control over the lever. Thus, only the executive monkey had t he physiological stress of having to press the lever, but both animals received shocks. After 23 days of 6 hours on and off schedule, the executive monkey died because of perforated ulcer. Brady initially thought that the stress might be related to the reinforcement schedule. He also tried several other routines such as 18 hours on and 6 hours off and tested the executive monkey to find out that stomach acidity was greatest during this period. After the experiment, Brady concluded that it was clearly stress, not the shocks that created the ulcers. Having said that, he also concluded that the greatest danger happened while the sympathetic arousal stopped and the stomach was flooded with digestive hormones, which is a parasympathetic rebound linked with hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis, hence HPA. Assessing the effectiveness of the biomedical as a method of stress measurement The research carried out by Brady (1958) proved effectively that stress may be a causal factor in stomach ulcers. Stress often increases the secretion of hydrochloric acid, which plays in the development of some ulcers. Stress also weakens the defences of the gastrointestinal tract against this acid, thereby permitting gastric ulcers to develop. (Pinel, 1997). Supporting evidence to the effectiveness of Bradys experiment is Weiner et al. (1957) findings in support to Bradys experiment. Weiner et al. (1957) used army recruits to test for the effectiveness of Bradys experiment. Prior to basic training, the soldiers were tested and classed on the basis of their release of digestive enzymes as over-secretors or under -secretors. After four months of stressful training, 14% of the over-secretors had developed ulcers, whereas none of the under-secretors had. This suggests not only that the same principles apply to humans, but also that individual differences may be important in view of the fact that not all of the over-secretors developed ulcers. Biochemical method of measuring stress involves adrenaline and noradrenalin hormones. These hormones provides effective measures of stress The research also suggested that too much stress at work can lead to development of ulcers. Bradys experiment was however criticised for not randomly selecting the monkeys and also, using non-human samples Subsequent research has also demonstrated that ulcers are not always stress related, there could be an underlying biological cause. E.g. fungi Bradys experiment is associated with the Hypothalamic -Pituitary-Adrenocortical Axis, this in effect elevates levels of glucose and some hormones including the ACTH (Acetylcholine) and the body continues to use its resources at an accelerating rate. Stress-triggered increases in heart rate and blood pressure. This may result in the deterioration and blocking of blood vessels thereby increasing cardiovascular disorders and chronic stress. Many physical, organisational and social factors in the workplace can become sources of stress, usually exerting a relatively long-term, stable and chronic influence. Work overload, lack of control, and poor interpersonal relations at work may all lead distress, ill health and eventual burnout. Hence, biomedical serves as a suitable method for assessing stress at a work place Physiological: Biofeedback Physiological measures in stress provide indications of the level of sympathetic nervous arousal. This can include a persons heart rate, blood pressure, and respiration rate and so on. One of the common physiological methods used in measuring stress is biofeedback. Biofeedback is a technique which involves recording the activity of the physiological systems of the bodys stress response, that is the heart rate, blood pressure or tension in the neck muscles. This enables the individual to monitor their own physiological arousal in real times and develop control over it (Gatchel, 1997). During the process, the individual is attached is attached to a machine which produces feedback about some physiological activity such as an auditory or visual signal to indicate whether his / her heart rate is too high or moderate. The individual is also trained in techniques to reduce physiological aspects of stress such as relaxation training. One of the common ways humans can learn to control their brain-waves is by using electroencephalogram (EEG) biofeedback. Electroencephalogram (EEG) An EEG involves placing electrodes on a persons scalp to record the small changes in electrical activity of the brain. These changes are displayed on a computer screen. EEGs are often used to measure changes in brain activity during the different stages of sleep; however, in biofeedback EEG is used to give visual feedback of the activity of the waking brain. Biofeedback training however involves three stages, they include: Developing an awareness of the particular physiological response such as the heart rate Learning ways of controlling that physiological response in quiet conditions. This can include providing rewards for successful control in addition to no feedback Transferring that control into the conditions of everyday life. Assessing the effectiveness of biofeedback as a method of measuring stress This method has been effective in significant long-term reductions in stress in everyday life and has also led to benefits by producing a sense of control rather than purely psychological methods. Attanasio et al (1985) researched and found that biofeedback helped teenagers and children with stress related disorders to gain control over the symptoms of migraine headaches. The approach was however criticised that it treated symptoms rather than underlying conditions. Biofeedback has enjoyed a brief surge of popularity since its inception in the late 1960s. It has successfully treated many medical problems, particularly stress related illnesses such as incontinence, anxiety, hypertension, circulatory problems, irritable bowel syndrome and so on. Since its inception, it has produced significant long term reductions in stress in everyday life without any side effects unlike the other physiological approach (drugs) Biofeedback may lead to benefits by producing a sense of control rather than purely psychological methods. It is however not invasive, but rather voluntary. Arguably, the benefits of biofeedback could be gained from another relaxation technique and so biofeedback is an unnecessary expense. This serves as a limitation to biofeedback as a method of measuring stress. Recommendation of one way of stress measurement for use by the company Above all these methods of measuring stress, I will recommend life events which falls under self report because it is by this way that the individual can fully express his/her feelings and pain through subjective questionnaire about their mental and physical state. Criteria 3.1 Physiological approach to stress management and control Stress control and management is the attempt that is made to cope with stress through reduction of the of the stress response. There are many approaches to reducing a persons stress levels, but usually, it is aimed at the physiological and psychological effects of stress. The basic target for stress management is usually based on changing the individuals perception of the stressor. Physiological approaches to stress management are techniques that try to control the bodys response to stress by reducing physiological activity. The physiological components of stress can include physiological arousal, sleep disturbance, fatigue, gastrointestinal disturbances, headaches, concentration problems, increased expression of irritability and anger, agitation, increased likelihood for illness, and reduced productivity. The impact and the expression of these stress symptoms vary with the individual and the stressful event. Two physiological methods for controlling stress include biofeedback and stress. However, I am going to evaluate one out these two, which is Anti-anxiety drugs technique. Anti-anxiety drugs Anti-anxiety drugs are medicines that are used calming and relaxing severe stress cases. They can also be used to calm nervousness, tension or for specific phobia disorder. The human body produces chemicals such as hormones and neurotransmitters that create anxiety, which can be countered using other chemical substances such as drugs that reduce anxiety. There are different types of anti- anxiety that work through different mechanisms. The most common drugs are: Beta-blockers Benzodiazepines Alcohol (rarely used) Beta-blockers Beta-blockers are one of the drugs used control stress by reducing activity in the sympathetic nervous system. They have a direct action on the heart and circulatory system hence; they decrease the heart rate and lower peripheral blood pressure. Their effects are on the body however, they do not have direct effects on brain activity. Lau et al. (1992) considered the findings from numerous studies in a meta-analysis hence combining data from several studies. Thus, beta-blockers have proved useful in reducing blood pressure and in treating patients with heart disease. Psychological research also concludes that, the drug reduced the risk of death by about 20% in patients suffering from heart disease. It also enhances performance in musicians and public speakers (Taylor 1995). However, one disadvantage of beta-blockers is that, they target symptoms rather than causes of anxiety and stress hence providing only temporary improvement. Benzodiazepines Sometimes when drugs are taken, they elapse in natural processes by controlling the action of neurotransmitters. Types of benzodiazepines include Valium and Librium which are used for increasing the neurotransmitter GABA, which decreases serotonin activity, which eventually reduces arousal. Benzodiazepines are very effective and used worldwide by approximately hundred million people. Despite its effectiveness, benzodiazepines have got some side effects which are linked to low levels of serotonin. Common effects can include drowsiness, causing of cognitive and memory impairments, feelings of depression, and interacting unpredictably with alcohol Ashton (1997). Another effect of the drug is that, it is more likely to be involved with accident. Strengths of Anti-anxiety drugs Anti-anxiety drugs can be very effective in controlling severe feelings of stress. Beta blockers for instance act on the autonomic nervous system to reduce heart rate/blood pressure physiological stress arousal. Anti-depressant drugs, less often used, can be appropriate for severe anxiety Benzodiazepines such as Valium increase the activity of the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA in the brain. Anti-anxiety drugs decrease arousal and relax the body by reducing tension in the muscles. Since stress response involves high arousal, tranquillizers may in some cases reduce stress Weaknesses of Anti-anxiety drugs Anti-anxiety drugs like benzodiazepines work by reducing brain activity. While this temporarily relieves anxiety, it can also lead to unwanted side effects. The higher the dose, the more pronounced these side effects typically are. But some people feel sleepy, foggy, and uncoordinated even on low doses of benzodiazepines, which can cause problems with work, school, or everyday activities such as driving. Some even feel a medication hangover the next day. Because benzodiazepines are metabolized slowly, the medication can build up in the body when used over longer periods of time. The result is over sedation. People who are over sedated may look like theyre drunk. Anxyolitic drugs can cause psychological and physical dependence, tolerance and addiction. Psychological approach to stress management and control Psychological approach to stress control and management are the techniques that try to control the cognitive, social, and emotional responses to stress. They do this by addressing the underlying cause of stress such as faulty thinking. This approach works by changing the persons perception of the stressor and increasing their perception control. One psychological approach to stress control and management is the cognitive-behavioral therapy. Cognitive-behavioral therapy Cognitive-behavioral therapy to controlling stress is based on the cognitive appraisal definition of stress and aims to change a persons perceptions and thoughts relating to, and dealing with stressful disorders. This therapy is appropriate for dealing with stress hence the assumption behind the cognitive approach is that, it is the way one thinks about the problem that is maladaptive. Thus, if an individual can be trained to reorganize their thinking and self-beliefs, the underlying problem itself may simply disappear. This approach to managing stress involves: stress inoculation training and hardiness training. Stress inoculation training Stress inoculation training (SIT): Unlike many cognitive therapies, stress inoculation training (SIT) is a more problem-focused coping strategy. It was developed by Donald Meichenbaum (1977, 1985) and the basic idea was to prepare individuals to cope with potential stressors. According to Meichenbaum (1985), the best way to cope with stressors is to go on the offensive and try to pre-empt them. People should try to anticipate sources of stress and have effective coping strategies ready to put in place. Meichenbaum (1985) describes SIT as: Analogous to the concept of medical inoculation against infectious diseasesà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦ It is designed to build psychological antibodies or coping skills, and to enhance resistance through exposure to stimuli that are strong enough to arouse defences without being so powerful as to overcome them. (Meichenbaum 1985) There are three main phases in stress inoculation training: 1. Assessment: with this training, the therapists discuss the nature of the problem with the individual, and solicit the individuals perception of how to eliminate it. Meichenbaum (1985) considers this relationship to be very important as it provides the glue that allows the various aspects of the therapy to work together. 2. Stress reduction techniques: the individual learns various techniques for reducing stress, such as relaxation and self instructional training, communication, assertion, problem solving, anger control, parenting, study skills and using social support by using coping self statements. 3. Application and follow through: In this final phase, the individual imagines using the stress reduction techniques learned in the second phase in difficult situations and engages in role play of such situations with the therapists, before using the techniques in a real life situations. Strengths of stress inoculation training One important strength of Stress Inoculation Training (SIT) is that, it is very flexible. This is because, it consists of a wide variety of cognitive and behavioural techniques tailored to the individual needs of the client, which can be used to deal with many types of stressor (e.g., time-limited/persistent, controllable/uncontrollable, predictable/unpredictable, current/in the past). It has been found to be successful in helping people deal with the stress of chronic pain, performance anxiety, specific phobias and work related stress (Meichenbaum, 1977, 1985). This training has also helped athletes deal with the stress of competition (Mace, Eastmen Carroll, 1986) and helping patients prepare for surgery (Langer, Janis Wolfer, 1975). Weakness of stress inoculation training Stress inoculation training is however of less value when treating individuals who are highly stressed or exposed to very stressful situations. Most individuals differ in how easy they find it to use coping self statements in stressful situations. Hardiness training Over these years, much research into stress has shown that there are significant individual differences in the way that people respond to stress. Since some individuals seem to cope better than others do, it makes sense to try to isolate the reasons why they can do so. The hope is that more effective ways of coping can be passed on to help those who are not as well prepared. Suzanne Kobasa (1986) has identified such individuals, who she describes as hardy, as those whose cognitive strategies are better suited to dealing with stress. For example, they are more able to identify the symptoms of stress hence avoiding action can be taken in time. They make more realistic assessments of stressors, including being aware of the positive aspects of stressful situations, opportunities and new challenges. Kobasa suggests that hardiness can be improved with appropriate training. Her programme consists of three techniques: 1. Focusing: This explains that one should focus on the physical signs of stress and beware when further attention is needed. 2. Reconstructing stress situations: This technique the individual to think about recent stressful situations and note how it might have turned out both better and worse, hence becoming aware that things could have been worse enables you to feel more positive. 3. Compensation through self-improvement: If an individual is affected by a stressor that cannot be changed or avoided, then it may be helpful to take on another challenge that can be mastered. Consequently, this assures you that you can hope. Strengths of hardiness training There is little direct research evidence on the effectiveness of hardiness training and what research there is, however, Fischman taught a small number of executives these strategies and they had greater job satisfaction, fewer headaches, and better sleep patterns Weaknesses of hardiness training Reports were made that people who have followed this kind of programme do score higher on a test of hardiness, report feeling less stressed, and have lower blood pressure than before, Sarafino (1990). The study was done on a small scale and there was no follow-up, so results may have been due to increased attention and communication only Summary Both Meichenbaum (1985) and Kobasas(1986) approaches to stress management place great emphasis on the individual gaining control of a stressful situation because it is more often the sensation of being out of control that takes a situation beyond a persons ability to cope.

Thursday, September 19, 2019

We Must be More Cynical of Human Evolution Theories Essay -- Argumenta

We Must be More Cynical of Human Evolution Theories The history of human existence is a highly speculated and heated subject of debate. Many seek for origins of mankind through religious and cultural contexts. Although no definitive answer has been established, society often tends to look towards science for explanation of this mystery. Surprisingly, much of what is presented in regards to human evolution is taken as fact. There is an underlying de-emphasis on particulars such as hypothesis and theory. Rather than disillusionment resulting from constant discoveries which discredit previous beliefs, a reinterpretation is created and subsequently taken as truth. Although a great deal of testing and physical evidence accompanies these theories, none provide complete concrete validation. A prime example of such reinterpretation stemming from new discovery is the recent finding of fossilized skulls in Ethiopia. On November 16, 1997 the skulls of two adults and one child were found in the Afar region bordering the Middle Awash River in a village called Herto. After roughly three years of reconstructing the fragments of skull together (the child’s skull alone is composed of over 800 pieces), further profane discoveries were brought to the public’s attention. Testing and analysis reveals that the skulls are 16,000 years old and thus makes them the oldest modern human fossils to date1[1]. The skulls significance however is of even greater importance. The Herto skulls prove that the current and widely accepted theory of evolution is flawed. The age of the skulls pre-dates Neanderthal fossils. Therefore, we could not have evolved from them2[2]. Neanderthals split of the human tree (a popular metaphor in reference t...   3[3]   4[4] 5[5] 6[6]   7[7]   8[8] 9[9]   10[10] 11[11] 12[12]

Wednesday, September 18, 2019

Eating Disorders - Body Image in the Media Essay -- Argumentative Pers

Body Image in the Media      Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Plato once said, "We behold beauty in the eye of the mind...." What some people consider beauty others may not. From the actresses that are shown on television, movies, models that are in magazines, and the pop stars that create hip and modern music videos, one could be under the impression that to be beautiful you must thin. Actresses such as Jennifer Aniston, Sarah Michelle Gheller, Clarista Flockheart, Courtney Cox and Debra Messing all have staring roles in their own television shows and are all extremely thin. The audiences of these shows being mostly women and adolescent girls, what kind of message about body image are they sending out?    The stars of Hollywood are considered to be the most beautiful and elegant in the world. A vast majority of the population wants to have their bodies resemble those of the stars. These women and girls will go to extreme lengths have this happen. What these women don't understand is, these actresses have professionals to help them look "beautiful." They have professional hair and makeup artists, fashion experts to help them dress, and lighting experts to make the women glow on the screen. These actresses and models will go through painful plastic surgeries to enhance their "beauty" because they feel as though they are not beautiful enough. "Fashion magazines are filled with air brushed photos of emaciated models with breast implants" (Schneider, Shelly 2). Not even famous actresses feel as though they are beautiful enough. "I have never worked with a beautiful young woman who thought she was A) beautiful or B) thin enough." (Schumacher 1) This director, Joel Schumacher, has worked wit h actresses like Demi Moore, Julia Roberts and Sandra Bullock. ... ...the women who aren't on television really do have it easier. Women who are not in the spotlight don't have to worry about thousands to millions of people looking and analyzing them. Women who are not in the spotlight do not having people telling them they are over weight or not pretty enough to be televised. All females should appreciate each other for the special features that each of us possesses. If we could focus on the positive instead of the negative maybe we could go help the problem of people having low self-esteem and body issues.    Work Cited "Children, Adolescents, and Television." Pediatrics. 107. (2001): 423-427 Erokan, Laney. "Negative Body Image Influences Eating Disorders." Lycos Network. 30 Aug. 2000. <> Schenider, Karen S. Shelley Levitt. "Mission Impossible." People. 3 June 1996. : 64-73

Tuesday, September 17, 2019

Classical and Positive Theory Essay

Classical Philosophy emphasizes on human rationality and freedom. Some classical writings are written by Plato, Aristotle, Boethius and St. Thomas of Aquinas. These writers of the ancient and medieval school are still relevant to the philosophical thoughts of today. Nation begins to turn from feudalism and the modern world based its governance on rational decision making. Classical thinking also compels justice system to give varying degrees of swift punishment to offenders. Classical school of rational thoughts believes that suffering is an integral part of human existence and since man is ordained the highest among the created things he is lord over them which means that what controls man is his free own will. His freedom is based on the fear of pain and death or punishment which makes him control his behavior. Since man is free it means free to choose what is good as dictated by the moral norms and the authority governing its people. In this way, the State ought to enforce law in an organized and equitable way. Being free does not intend to do what one wishes to do but choosing what is right. It’s relevance in today’s happening is the way how truth is safeguarded in this present society in which sometimes sins becomes a virtue. The classical minded protagonist’s defended and defined what is rational and irrational; it distinguishes the upright conscience from the deformed and seemingly lax consciences. Man is therefore relegated to its higher end and in the belief that life is worthwhile. 2) Positivist Theory What factors contributed to the intellectual heritage of positivism? How does the positivist theory apply in the modern world today, if at all? Positive theory is a search of multiple factors that causes human behavior (â€Å"CLASSICAL AND POSITIVIST SCHOOLS OF CRIMINOLOGY,† 2005). Positivism is a way of seeing things around us based on the actual happenings in the material world. That human endeavor has a pattern in which a person can discover in the natural way. Once the patterns are discovered we can deduce the information into small portions where we can analyze and learn the facts about the whole thing. The method of learning is perceived objectively, open minded view to the world. Positive law can be used to change an organization based on the observable scientific data. The application of natural sciences is applied to the study of human behavior. Positive theory as applied in the modern world could be environmental and biological and sometimes evolutionary which means that traits can be passed on through heredity. A positivist’s judge rejects the idea that criminal behavior is a result of free will but sought the understanding of the bad action through scientific method. However some psychologists believed that we could diminish the criminal populace by partial elimination which advocates death for those with permanent psychological abnormalities. The first indicates that man is not responsible of his action and the later concept is contrary to the moral norms and is not acceptable to a humane and free society. References CLASSICAL AND POSITIVIST SCHOOLS OF CRIMINOLOGY [Electronic. (2005). Version]. Retrieved 05 November 2007, from http://faculty. ncwc. edu/toconnor/301/301lect02. htm

Monday, September 16, 2019

Criminal Justice Careers Essay

Abstract This paper reflects about criminal justice careers that will help me get knowledge and get a better idea about the career that I choose. Components of criminal justice: law enforcement, courts, and corrections. A brief description about the career, the requirements, and the hiring criteria the career has. Tell why the position interest me, how does it relate to the career path that I want, and finally what I’m looking for in gaining from the career. Keywords: Crime Scene Investigation (CSI), Parole Agent, and a Court Clerk. Law enforcement: CSI One component of the Criminal Justice career is law enforcement. There are many different kinds of jobs in law enforcement, but the career that got most of my attention was CSI. CSI stands for Crime Scene Investigation. The CSI job is to analyze crimes further. They get to take pictures of the crime scene; they collect evidence that will help them solve what happened on the crime. There job is to solve who committed the crime. The requirements to become a crime scene investigator are; 1. Have a H.S diploma (college degree preferred by some agencies) 2. Valid driver’s license 3. Successful completion of background investigation 4. Law enforcement experience possibly required for position of crime scene investigator (other agencies hire civilian crime scene investigators). (Goodman, & Grimming, 2007) As I was saying before some agencies require that first you have to be a police officer to become a Crime Scene Investigator. When you are a new recruit you must successfully complete a hurdle process, meaning that you have to take different kinds of tests and background checks. For example the agencies will check your criminal record, investigate your background, driving record and credit history. There are also written examinations which show the reading skills and the understandings that you have. This will help the police agency predict and tell who will do well in the police academy. (Peak, 2006) The hiring criteria that exist for this position are that you take a physical agility test, personal interview, character investigation, medical examination and drug screening. The physical agility test is important because you have to be healthy and most importantly you have to be in shape. The reason why the police academy does this is because when you are a police officer you never know what is going to happen. You are going to face a lot of different situations and you are going to have to be able to handle them. First you have to get out of the problem, meaning that you have to run, climb etc. Second resolving the problem, sometimes you are going to struggle with the offender so you probably need to fight. Lastly, you need to remove the problem meaning that it often requires that the officer can carry heavy weights. (Peak, 2006) The personal interview evaluates how the new recruit explains how they will behave in a certain situation and what will they do to solve it. The character investigation involves talking to the applicants past and current friends, teachers, and neighbor just to investigate how they are. Polygraph examination tells whether the applicant is honest. Since the job is stressful the applicant needs to be healthy so they have to make a medical examination and a drug screening. The academy training shapes the officers attitudes. (Peak, 2006) I find this position interesting because as a child, I always wanted to do something related to criminal justice. I didn’t really know what specifically I wanted to do, but I had an idea. Everything started when I was a senior in H.S I was taking a forensic science class and that really got my attention. It was really exciting class, we got to do a lot of projects and we actually dissected a frog and a baby pig. That’s when I started to think about being in the CSI. I love to solve mysteries, I like investigating things. The skills that I have are that I like sketching. For example back when I was in H.S when we used to do crime labs I loved to draw what I saw. The reason why is because that helps me go back and analyze what happened. I  also like investigating: I like to think beyond the things that actually happened. This will really help me in becoming a crime scene investigator because you have to record everything you see and you have to collect evidence. You have to think beyond what you see because you have to try to find the person that did it. The entry level salary range of $30,000- $40,000 depending on the agency. To be honest I don’t really look at it for the money, this is something that I want to do, it what I like. (Goodman, & Grimming, 2007) Corrections: Parole Agent Another component of the Criminal Justice system is corrections. One of the jobs that the correction has is a parole agent. The goal for a parole agent is to protect the public. The responsibility for a parole agent is to assist ex- offenders so that they can adjust to life in a save and free community. They are also responsible to prevent future criminal acts. They help the people become a better person so that they can have a productive and normal live. Parole agents supervise the offenders who had been released from prison. (Careers in criminal, 2006) What the parole agent has to do is that they need to investigate the offender. For example the parole agent investigates the offender’s background so that they can gather information and write reports for the parole board hearings. Parole agents are able to issue arrest, hold, and release orders. They can photograph offender, crime victims or evidence. Parole agents also can perform alcohol and drug testing by observing, collecting and taking urine samples and testifying in courts. (Careers in criminal, 2006) The working conditions for a parole agent are that it requires traveling. They have to provide their own transportation and have to be on 24 hour call. The situation may vary; sometimes the parole agent may be assigned to high crime areas. By being a parole agent you are risking your life because you never know how the people are. They risk violence, vicious animals, visiting unpleasant living conditions. (Careers in criminal, 2006) The qualifications and the job training that you need to be a parole agent are 1. Bachelor’s or associates degree from accredited educational institution 2. Must be able to carry a firearm 3. Valid state driver’s license 4. One or more year experience in criminal justice, correction, law enforcement, social service, or a related field 5. Parole agents may have to acquire and maintain certification in unarmed self- defense, firearms, and pepper spay 6.Background check, drug screening, and or polygraph examination may be required. (Careers in criminal, 2006) I find this position interesting because I like helping people. I think that everybody deserves a second change. People have to learn from there own mistakes so that they will not commit it again. Everybody can be successful in life the only thing is that we have to try. To be honest when I help someone I feel happy because I know I did the right thing. Sometimes you can’t do everything alone so you need a little push. I want to serve the community I want to help people to make the right decision and so that they can become better person. By doing this not only I ‘am helping a person, but I’m also helping the community become a safer place. Court: Court Clerk Court is another component of the criminal justice system. One of the jobs in the court is a court clerk. The court clerk maintains the case records, and prepares statistical reports (secure information for judges). Court clerks are responsible to contact witness, attorneys, and litigants to obtain information for the courts. There are many things that a court clerk has to do. A court clerk may prepare agendas for town or city councils; answer correspondence; keep fiscal records and accounts; record data; collect fees; file documents; retrieve and deliver files and documents to court or appropriate parties and much more. Court clerks are very important because they are responsible for handling the majority of the courts administrative activities. (Careers in criminal, 2006) The qualifications to becoming a court clerk are 1. High school diploma  or GED 2. One or more years of increasingly responsible experience in court administration or other legal field 3. Associate’s or bachelor’s degree in court administration, criminal justice, public administration, or a related field 4. Valid state driver’s license. In order to become a court clerk you are required to have a background check, fingerprinting, and physical examination. You are also required to reside in the jurisdiction of employment. (Careers in criminal, 2006) I find this position interesting because in this career you learn how to be more responsible and organized. This position is very hard because you can’t make mistakes. Everything depends on you. As I always say not everything is easy in life you have to struggle to get what you want. This can relate to my career path because in a court clerk you are also responsible in contacting witness, and attorneys which means that it’s involving a crime or other situations. I’ am never going to give up; I’m always going to give it my all. I know that there are going to be obstacles in life that not everything is going to be easy, but I have to overcome them. Nothing in this life is easy we have to work and struggle to get what we want. Nothing is going to be given to our hands. The best way to ensure my success and become who I want to be is to always keep going no matter what until I reach my goal. Reference: Goodman, D.J, & Grimming, R. (2007). Work in criminal justice an a-z guide to careers. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall. Peak, K.J. (2006). Policing america challenges and best practices . Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall. Careers in criminal justice. (2006). Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall.

Sunday, September 15, 2019

The Role of Government and the Relationship Between the Individual and the State

Lara O’Gorman The legacy of an empire is defined by its ability to conquer and make a mark on society. Many people throughout history sought to create empires as a way to establish their power. Often when one looks at the wide spectrum of history, some empires only last a few hundred of years and then dwindle out. After their fall, their legacy does not continue and their history is loss to the ages. Without a legacy, Rome would have ceased to exist, and would not have carried it’s ideals to post-classical civilizations.Rome had a successful and functioning government that help established its power, grandeur, and impressive knowledge of the arts. Within society it is vital to have a dependable and structured government as to prevent uproar and rebellion. The importance of a stable and powerful government is portrayed in the literary work Lord of the Flies and the idealization of political rulers and the subordination of subjects is conveyed through the art pieces the B ronze Statue of the Emperor Trebonianus Gallus and the Marble Portrait of Marcus Aurelius.Rome is remembered as a vast empire that stood above all surrounding civilizations with pride and honor. Rome, at it’s highest point, was thought of as immortal and impenetrable. It was only until the gradual decay of the empire that people thought of it as mortal. Before the detrimental rippling stages of the fall of Rome, powerful rulers and structured government was instilled within the empire. Several of these powerful emperors kept Rome under their rule by subordinating their subjects and by enforcing political unity. Other rulers used tolerance and active roles in society to appeal to their subjects.One ruler, Marcus Aurelius ascended to the throne in 161 AD and was deemed a philosopher king that was different from his predecessors. His philosopher status is recorded through the common depiction of him in a toga and adorning a Greek-inspired beard. He was interested in rational thi nking and tolerated all different sects of religion. Some say that his openness was his downfall and that his optimistic view of all things caused him to allow one of Rome’s worst emperors into his line of heir. Aurelius had an active role in government and did not discriminate against lower class people moving up in the world.He allowed people that were fit for government job, no matter what class, to have a say. This demonstrates his thought on his subordinates and how he not afraid to converse and involve himself with them. His openness is reflected in the calm and composed face of the portrait and how he is wise and is making a noble decision. Marcus was a fierce ruler and a good general, despite Rome’s loss against the Germanic tribes in war. The toga in which is realistically draped over his torso can be interpreted as a general’s attire. The militaristic style of his clothing suggest that he is the protector and is a strong ruler.Marcus lived a life of lu xury and suffered little. His wealth enabled him to surround himself with items of luxury. The emperor of Rome usually had portrait busts of their ancestors within his palace, which communicates the important and high position Marcus Aurelius had within society. The portrait busts were usually idealized, which can be see in the flawless bust that communicates that Marcus Aurelius was a strong, intelligent, and wealthy ruler. A second ruler, whom in contrast used his power and authority to rule his subordinates, ascended to power after the death of Decius in 251 AD at the battle of Abrittus.There, Trebonianus Gallus took on the position of ruling the vast and expansionist civilization of Rome. The troops that Decius led claimed Trebonianus Gallus a suitable ruler due to his familiarity with the government and his influence as a senate member. Gallus, to prevent the Goths from attacking again, signed a peace treaty that stated he would pay yearly tribute to them. To demonstrate Gallus ’ power over his subjects and ability to make executive decisions, the bronze statue portrays his arm are outstretched. This gesture is common with giving commands and looking down upon subjects from a higher point in society.Once Gallus was instated as emperor, he found that his empire had become plague stricken and the Roman population was dropping. To gain admiration from his subjects he buried the dead plague victims properly and spared no expense. This action suggests a confident personality, which is further expressed in the facial expression. Gallus, however, was seen inept in all other political categories. He was indecisive about detrimental political decisions, which greatly affected the state. Due to Gallus’ lack of political leadership, rebellions sparked within the empire, causing Trebonianus to flee to the north with his troops.The facial expression of the statue could also be interpreted as oblivious to his political duties and to the betrayal he would s oon face. With the threat of defeat and possible death lingering over his army, Gallus was killed, along with his co-emperors. Trebonianus Gallus was not seen as a beneficial addition to the empire and caused a plethora of problems, along with a growing feeling of discontent within the empire. The lack of skills Trebonianus possessed called for the end of his life. Although Gallus lacked military skill, his statue portrait is portrayed with the hair and beard style that soldiers favored.This conveys how leaders were idealized as to express authority and the greatness of the empire. When the leader of a united group becomes corrupt and unfit to complete his role in government, the subjects take action into their own hands. If discontent rises, rebellion and removal of power are probable. The mutiny that occurred with the homocide of Gallus, greatly demonstrates the importance of having a competent and understanding ruler as well as how the state is strong enough to react to problems that greatly affect the state as a whole.The fall of the great Roman Empire can be credited to many factors, but what caused the empire to completely corrode was the invasion by barbarians. In 410 AD, the Visigoths were led by Alaric to Ravenna where they soon ransacked the city and caused Rome to finally surrender its title of immortal. Due to the empire being strained prior to the attacks because of corruption in government, loss of tradition, and an unskilled military, it was easy for Alaric to fulfill the prophecy of penetrating â€Å"the city. It was clear that after the invasion by the Visigoths, Rome would not come out of it alive and victorious. The lack of a stable and prosperous government was one of the main factors that enabled Alaric to conquer Rome, which conveys the vitality of a strong government head. Compared to the fall of Rome, the plot of the Lord of the Flies by William Golding further explains why it is essential to have a central authority and how lacking th is political aspect can cause the downfall of a civilization.The 1954 novel discusses the social perils that ensue amongst English school boys once authority is not there to advise them. The literary work commences with the introduction of a tall blonde boy named Ralph that is soon accompanied by the voice of reason known as Piggy. During the time it takes Piggy and Ralph to become acquainted, they both realize that there are no adults on the island where their plane has crashed. They are astonished by this information but they still ask the question â€Å"Aren’t there any grownups at all? † The only reply that can be uttered is â€Å"I don’t think so. At first this information excited them and they become full of independence zeal, but later throughout the novel they begin to realize that a stable figure head is needed in order to have society function properly. Within society on the island, order is centered around a conch shell. This shell has symbolic value of order, normality, and power. Whomever holds the shell has the power to speak and to be heard. Piggy finds the shell within the first couple of stages of the plot and Ralph eventually uses it to signal the other children that were spread around the island by the crash.When all the children gather round the conch, a political issue arises; Who will be leader? Between the two most influential people in the group, Ralph and the chorus leader, Jack, an election is held. To Ralph’s advantage, the children say â€Å"Let him be chief with the trumpet thing. † The children recognize the conch as a centralizing factor and they search for stability in their new lives on the island. As with most empires and groups, irrational actions and discontent began to grow due to fear, anger, and power struggles. Power is wanted by the chorus leader, Jack, who sees himself as the most capable leader.He wishes to be in control, so he seeks the most controlling role within the new society; a hunter. By being the leader of the hunting party, he controls life and death and to whom or what he damages. The fact that Jack becomes this strong blood-thirsty leader enables the group to break away and form a corrupt and independent kingdom on the island. Strife begins to arise and violent actions begin to break out as the quest for power comes to a head. One of the most dramatic scenes in the book is when Ralph and Piggy go to Jack’s fortress in search of peace and unity.This peaceful venture turns into a bloodbath when the conch is destroyed and Piggy is killed by a boulder that is pushed from a mountainside by a chaos-consumed boy named Roger. Piggy was trying to remind the boys of the importance of rescue and how unity and peace should exist between the boys, but due to the lack of a strong and noble government, chaos and violence rules the kingdom of Castle Rock. The conch was the only remaining symbol of unity and stability, and it was crushed under the weight of a rock, which symbolically can be interpreted as the pressures of society and pure bedlam in society.The dark side of man is portrayed in the actions of the boys at Castle Rock. Because of these actions, â€Å"Ralph wept for the end of innocence, the darkness of man’s heart, and the fall through the air of a true, wise friend called Piggy. † At this point in the novel, society is out of control and unorganized. The perils of man and the way society becomes tumultuous and coercive communicates the need for a stable head of government. For without a functioning government, chaos is able to run rampant and disorganization can spread wildly. Government helps to instill organization and keeps the people at peace of mind.The government makes corporal decisions that are usually for keeping social rebellions at ease and to keep daily lives functioning. History demonstrates these points, whether it be through the art works or the literary works, but still manage to communicate the ideals and power of the ruler of the time. Whether it be for a demonstration of power or a depiction of what society is like when not controlled, the purpose of the portrayals is to call for the use of a stable government in order to make a legacy for the empire in which the ruler has sovereignty.